Adnax Publications

The nobility of England in the early eighteenth century

In 1727 there were 32 Dukes, 2 Marquisses, 85 Earls, 15 Viscounts, 64 Barons and 26 Bishops (including Archbishops).

César de Saussure was in London between 1725 and 1730. The following notes help to understand some of the characters about whom he talks, and some of the political and social background of his visit.

The age given for each individual is his age in 1727.

Ancaster, Duke of : 39
Robert Bertie, Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, Marquis and Earl of Lindsey, and Baron Willoughby of Eresby, Lord Great Chamberlain of England, Keeper of Waltham Forest, and Lord Lieutenant of the County of Lincoln (1686-1742) was made a member of the Privy Council in 1708, and in 1715 was summoned by writ to the House of Peers as Lord Willoughby of Eresby. In 1719 he was appointed one of the Lords of His Majesty’s Bedchamber. In 1723 he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Lincoln. He succeeded his father as Lord Great Chamberlain of England in 1723, and held the post until his death.

Argyle, Duke of : 47
John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyle, Duke and Earl of Greenwich, Baron Chatham, Master General of the Ordnance, Colonel of her Majesty's own Regiment of Horse, Lord High Steward of the Borough of Malmsbury in Wiltshire, Hereditary Lord Lieutenant of the Shires of Argyll and Dumbarton (1678-1743) was chief of Clan Campbell. He fought under the Duke of Marlborough during the War of the Spanish Succession. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1710. In 1715 he defeated the army of the Earl of Mar at Sheriffmuir. He was made commander in chief of the army in 1742.


Bolton, Duke of : 40
Charles Powlett, 3rd Duke of Bolton, Marquis of Winchester, Earl of Wiltshire, and Baron St John of Basing, Colonel of the Royal Regiment of Horse-Guards Blue, Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the County of Southampton; Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the County of Dorset, Custos Rotulorum of the County of Carmarthen, Bailiff of Burley, Warden and Keeper of the New Forest in the County of Southampton; Governor of Milford in the County of Pembroke and Governor of the Isle of Wight, and Vice Admiral of South Wales, County of Southampton, and the Isle of Wight, and Lord High Steward of the City of Winchester  (1685-1754) was ‘as proud as if he had been of any consequence besides what his employments made him, as vain as if he had some merit, and as necessitous as if he had no estate, so he was troublesome at Court, hated in the country, and scandalous in his regiment. The dirty tricks he played to cheat the Government of men, or his men of half-a-crown, were things unknown to any Colonel but his Grace, no griping Scotsman excepted.’ (Lord John Hervey) He is shown on Hogarth's print of the Beggars' Opera watching his future bride, Lavinia Fenton, in the role of Polly Peachum (far right).

Boston, Lord : 18
Sir William Irby (1707-1775) was a Page to George I and George II, and Equerry to Frederick, Prince of Wales from his arrival in England in 1728.

Buckingham, Duchess of :
Catherine Darnley, Duchess of Buckingham (d1743), was famously described as ‘more mad with pride than any mercer’s wife in Bedlam’. (Walpole : i, 150). She was the daughter of Catherine Sedley, mistress to James II both before and after his coronation. She married firstly James Annesley, 3rd Earl of Anglesey and secondly John Sheffield, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby, who died in 1721. ‘She was so proud of her birth, that she would never go to Versailles, because they would not give her the rank of Princess of the Blood. At Rome, whither she went two or three times to see her brother (the Pretender, James III), and to carry on negotiations with him for his interest, she had a box at the Opera distinguished like those of crowned heads. She not only regulated the ceremony of her own burial, and dressed up the waxen figure of herself for Westminster Abbey, but had shown the same insensible pride on the death of her only son, dressing his figures, and sending messages to her friends, that if they had a mind to see him lie in state, she would carry them in conveniently by the back door.’ (Walpole : i, 331 note) ‘Princess Buckingham is dead or dying: she has sent for Mr Anstis (Garter King at Arms), and settled the ceremonial of her burial. On Saturday she was so ill that she feared dying before all the pomp was come home: “Why won’t they send the canopy for me to see? let them send it, though all the tassels are not finished.” But yesterday was the greatest stroke of all! She made her ladies vow to her, that if she should lie senseless, they would not sit down in the room before she was dead.’ (Walpole : i. 332) 

Devonshire, Duke of : 52
William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire, Marquis of Hartington, and Baron Cavendish of Hardwick, Lord President of the Council, Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the County of Derby (1673-1729) served as a volunteer under William III in Flanders in 1692, and made a tour of France after the peace of Ryswick (1697). He became Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard, Lord Steward of the Household and a Privy Councillor under Queen Anne. He served as Lord President of the Council from 1725 to 1729.

Dorset, Duke of, Lord Steward : 37
Lionel Cranfield Sackville (1688-1765), 1st Duke of Dorset, Earl of Dorset and Middlesex, Viscount Wilton, Baron Buckhurst and Baron Cranfield of Cranfield, Lord Steward of his Majesty's Household, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, Governor of Dover Castle, and Lord High Steward of Stratford upon Avon, was Lord Steward of the Household from 1725-1730. He was the son of Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset, the libertine and sometime poet. He married Elizabeth Colyear, daughter of General Walter Colyear, in 1709. She was a Lady of the Bedchamber to Princess (later Queen) Caroline from 1714 until 1739.

Dumbarton, Earl of : 38
George Douglas, 2nd Earl of Dumbarton (1687-1749)

Dysart, Earl of : 76
Lionel Tollemache, 3rd Earl of Dysart (1649-1727) , was the grandson of William Murray (through his mother), who was whipping boy to Charles I. Ham House, built in 1610 for Sir Thomas Vavasour, was granted to this William Murray in 1626. He was created 1st Earl of Dysart in 1642.

Essex, Earl of :
William Capel, 3rd Earl of Essex, Viscount Malden, and Baron Capel of Hadham, Knight of the most ancient order of the Thistle, Lord of the Bed Chamber to the King, Chief Ranger of St James' Park, and Lord Lieutenant of the County of Hertford  was appointed Gentleman of the Bedchamber to the Prince of Wales in 1719, Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire in 1725 and went in 1731 as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the King of Sardinia. 

Exeter, Earl of : 24
Brownlow Cecil, 8th Earl of Exeter and Baron of Burleigh, Recorder of the Borough of Stamford in Lincolnshire (1701-1754)

Godolphin, Earl of :
Francis Godolphin, Earl and Baron Godolphin, and Viscount Rialton, Groom of the Stole to his Majesty, first Lord of the Bedchamber, High Steward of the Corporation of Banbury, and Lord Lieutenant of the County of Oxon, PC (1678-1766) 

Grafton, Duke of : 42
Charles Fitzroy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, 3rd Earl of Arlington and Euston, Viscount Thetford and Ipswich, and Baron of Sudbury, Lord Chamberlain of the King's Household, Ranger of Whittlewood Forest in the County of Northampton, and Lord Lieutenant of the County of Suffolk (1683-1757) was Lord Chamberlain from 1724 to 1757. According to Jonathan Swift, he was 'almost a slobberer, without one good quality', and Lord Waldegrave found him 'totally illiterate; yet from long observation and great natural sagacity he became the courtier of his time.' Macky describes him as ‘a very pretty Gentleman, hath been Abroad in the World; zealous for the Constitution of his Country’. He was a grandson of Charles II.

Grantham, Earl of : 50
Henry Nassau D'Averquerque, Earl of Grantham, Viscount Boston, and Baron of Alford, Lord Chamberlain to the Queen(1675-1754) was Master of the Horse to William III and created by him Baron of Alford, Viscount Boston and Earl of Grantham. ‘...a gallant soldier...who wore with just pride a costly sword presented to him by the States General in acknowledgment of the courage with which he had, on the bloody day of Saint Dennis, saved the life of William.’ (Macaulay) He was appointed Chamberlain to Princess Caroline in 1717, in which capacity he was responsible for organising her court functions. ‘My Lord Tyrawley is come from Portugal...he was asked the other night at supper what he thought of England; whether he found much alteration from fifteen years ago? “No,” he said, “not at all: why there is my Lord Bath, I don’t see the least alteration in him; he is just what he was: and then I found my Lord Grantham walking on tiptoe, as if he was still afraid of waking the Queen.”’ (Walpole : i, 308)

Herbert, Mary : 18
Mary Herbert (1707-1769) was a Woman of the Bedchamber from 1723. She was the sister of Scroop, Lord Viscount Howe, and first married to Thomas Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, in 1725.

Howard, Henrietta : 37
Henrietta Howard (1688-1767) was a Woman of the Bedchamber from 1714 and mistress to the Prince of Wales, a position she kept from around 1710 until allowed to retire by Queen Caroline in 1734. She received £11,500 in trust from the Prince in 1723 to buy land and build a house, which she applied to building Marble Hill House on the Thames at Twickenham. (The house was designed by Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke, the 'architect earl', husband to the Mary Herbert who accompanied her on this occasion). ‘I have been very unfortunate in the death of my Lady Suffolk, who was the only sensible friend I had at Strawberry (Hill). Though she was seventy-nine, her senses were te highest perfection, and her memory wonderful, as it was as accurate on recent events as on the most distant. Her hearing has been impaired above forty years, and was the only defect that prevented her conversation from not being as agreeable as possible. She had seen, known, and remembered so much, that I was very seldom not eager to hear. She was a sincere and unalterable friend, very calm, judicious, and zealous. Her integrity and goodness had secured the continuation of respect, and no fallen favourite had ever experienced neglect less. Her fortune, which had never been near so great as it was believed, of late years was so diminished, as to have brought her into great difficulties. Yet they were not even suspected, for she had a patience and command of herself that prevented her ever complaining of either fortune or illness.’ (Walpole : vii, 125)

Huntingdon, Earl of : 29
Theophilus Hastings, 9th Earl of Huntingdon, Baron Hastings, Hungerford, Botreux, Molens and Moels (1696-1746) ‘If his birth deserved respect, his life deserved it more. If he derived his title from a long roll of illustrious ancestors, he reflected back on them superior honours. He ennobled Nobility by virtue. He was of the first rank in both, good in every relation of natural duty and of social life. The learning he acquired at School, he improved at Oxford, under the care of that excellent person, the late Bishop of Gloucester. Acquainted by his studies with the characters of past ages, he acquired by his travels a knowledge of the men and manners of his own, he visited France, Italy and even Spain. After these excursions into other countries, he settled in his own. His own was dear to him. No man had juster notions of the true constitution of her government: no man had a more comprehensive view of her real interests, domestic and foreign,. Capable of excelling in every form of buplic life, he chose to appear in none. His mind fraught with knowlege, his heart elevated with sentiments of unaffected patriotism, he looked down from higher ground on a low level of a futile and corrupt generation. Despairing to do national good, he mingled as little as his rank permitted in national affairs. Home is the refuge of a wise man’s life; Home was the refuge of his. By his marriage with the Lady Selina Shirley, second daughter, and one of the co-heirs of Washington Earl Ferrers, he secured to himself, in retreat, a scene of happiness he could not have found in the world; the uninterrupted joys of conjugal love, the never failing comforts of cordial friendship. Every care was softened, every satisfaction heightened, every hour passed smoothly away, in the company of one who enjoed a perpetual serenity of soul, that none but those can feel in this life, who are prepared for greater bliss in the next. By her this monument is erected, to record the virtues of the deceased, and the grief of the living....The said Earl died of a fit of the apoplexy, October 13, 1746, in the 50th year of his age.’ (Collins iii, 102)

Kendal, Duchess of : 58
Ehrengard Melusina von Schulenberg, Duchess of Kendal (1667-1743) was nicknamed the 'maypole'. George brought her with him from Hanover, together with Charlotte Sophia Kielmannsegge, nicknamed the 'elephant'. George's wife, Sophia, had been suspected of having an affair and was locked away in Ahlden castle from 1694 until her death in 1726. Rumour had it that her suspected lover had been chopped up and buried under the floorboards. ‘During the last years of the late King’s (George I) life, he took extremely to New Park, and loved to shoot there, and dined with my father (Robert Walpole) and a private party, and a good deal of punch. The Duchess of Kendal, who hated Sir Robert, and favoured Bolingbroke, and was jealous for herself, grew uneasy at these parties and used to put one or two of the Germans upon the King to prevent his drinking (very odd preventives!) - however they obeyed their orders so well, that one day the King flew into a great passion, and reprimanded them in his own language with extreme warmth.’ (Walpole : iii, 270)

Kent, Duke of : 61
Henry de Grey, Duke, Marquis and Earl of Kent, Earl of Harold, Viscount Goodrick of Goodrick Castle, Baron Hastings, and Baron Lucas of Crudewell, Lord Lieutenant of the County of Bedford (1664-1740) was made Lord Chamberlain and Privy Councillor in 1704. He also acted as Lord Steward from 1716-1718 and Lord Privy Seal from 1719-1720.

King, Lord : 56
Peter Lord King, Baron of Ockham, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, one of the Governors of the Charter House (1669-1734) was ‘born in the city of Exeter, of worthy and substantial parents; but with a genius greatly superior to his birth. By his industry, prudence, learning, and virtue, he raised himself to the highest character and reputation, and to the highest posts and dignities. He applied himself to his studies in the Inner Temple; and to an exact and complete knowledge in all the parts and history of the law, added the most extensive learning, theological and civil. He was chosen a Member of the House of Commons in 1699; Recorder of the City of London in 1708; made Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in 1714; on the accession of George I created Lord King, Baron of Ockham, and raised to the post and dignity of the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, 1725. Under the labour and fatigues of wich weighty place, sinking into a paralytic disease, he resigned it November 29, 1733; and died July 22, 1734, aged 65.’ (Collins)

Kinnoull, Lord : 36
George Henry Hay, 8th Earl of Kinnoull (1689-1758)

Leeds, Duke of : 67
Peregrine Osborne, 2nd Duke of Leeds, Marquis of Camarthen, Earl of Daby, Viscount Latimer and Dumblaine, Baron Osborne of Kiverton and Baronet (1658-1729) commanded several expeditions by sea and ‘was on many occasions distinguished by his gallant behaviour’ (Collins). He became Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the East Riding of Yorkshire in 1713.

Leicester, Lord : 45
John Sidney, 6th Earl of Leicester, Viscount Lisle and Baron Sydney of Penshurst, Knight of the Bath, Lord Lieutenant of the County of Kent, and Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard (1680-1737) was Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard from 1725 to 1731. According to Macky he ‘is the Representative of the Noble Family of Sidney. This Gentleman has not been yet in Business, but behaved himself very well, in the House of Commons, when he was Knight of the Shire of Kent, his Grandfather and Father being then alive: Is very warm for the Constitution of his Country, of good Sense, is of a fair Complexion.’ He inherited the earldom in 1705 from his brother, Philip.

Lincoln, Earl of : 41
Henry Clinton, 7th Earl of Lincoln, Baron Clinton and Say, Cofferer of his Majesty's Household, PC (1684-1728) entered the House of Lords in 1708, but opposed the measures of the court of Queen Anne and the Treaty of Utrecht, for which show of steadfastness and integrity, Arthur Herbert, Earl of Torrington, left him the bulk of his estate. In 1714 he was appointed Master of the Horse and one of the Lords of the Bedchamber to the Prince of Wales. In 1715 he was appointed Paymaster General to his Majesty’s Forces and a member of the Privy Council. He was elected a Knight of the Garter in 1721. In 1723 he became Lord Lieutenant of Tower Hamlets and Constable of the Tower of London, which post he gave up to become Cofferer of his Majesty’s Household in 1725.

Manchester, Duke of : 25
William Montague, Duke and Earl of Manchester, Viscount Mandeville, and Baron Montague of Kimbolton, Knight of the Bath, Collector of the Customs outward in the Port of London and Lord Lieutenant of the County of Huntingdon (1700-1739) was one of the Lords of the Bedchamber to George I and also George II, at whose coronation he bore the golden spurs. He married Lady Isabella, eldest daughter of John, Duke of Montagu, in 1723.

Marlborough, Duchess of : 

Marlborough, Duke of : d3
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722). According to Macky, ‘is Son to Sir Winston Churchill, of a good Family. The Duke of York's Love for his Sister (by whom he had the Duke of Berwick, and other Children) first brought him to Court; and the Beauty of his own Person, and his good Address, so gained on the Dutchess of Cleveland (then Mistress to King Charles the Second) that she effectually established him there.

When the Duke of York was sent to Scotland, he was of his Family, and was there made a Lord, by the Title of Lord Aymouth; and, on that Prince's coming to the Throne, created a Baron of England, by the Title of Lord Churchill. He continued one of King James's chief Favourites all that Prince's Reign; was of his Council, and a Major General of his Army: But the great Progress of Popery shocked him. His Love to his Country counter-balanced all King James's Favours, and drew him from that Prince's Person, to the Interest of his Country; which he handsomely expressed in a Letter he sent to his Majesty, giving much the same Reason that Brutus did for joining against Caesar.

He was the great Instrument of bringing over the Army to the Prince of Orange; and, to the Admiration of everybody, with a Handful of Men, reduced Cork and Kingsale in Ireland, with their numerous Garrisons, to King William's Obedience. And on his Accession to the Throne, was made Earl of Marlborough, and General of his Forces; in which Post he served also in Flanders, with universal Applause. On some Difference, still a Secret to the Generality of the World, he was thrown out of all; and the Princess of Denmark (now Queen) in Disgrace with the King, and her Sister the Queen, for taking his and his Lady's Part.

Towards the End of King William's Reign, he was restored to his Majesty's Favour, and was made Governour to the Duke of Gloucester, one of the Lords Justices, and Plenipotentiary in Holland.

On the Queen's Accession to the Throne, he was made Captain General of all the Forces, created a Duke, had the Garter, and Master of Ordnance.

He is a tall, handsom Man for his Age, with a very obliging Address; of a wonderful Presence of Mind, so as hardly ever to be discomposed; of a very clean Head, and sound Judgment; very bold, never daunted for want of Success; every Way capable of being a Great Man, if the great Success of his Arms, and the Heaps of Favours thrown upon him by his Sovereign, does not raise his Thoughts above the rest of the Nobility, and consequently draw upon him the Envy of the People of England.

As England owes entirely to his Conduct, the making that great Turn of Affairs at the Revolution, without the shedding of Blood; so does all Europe, the saving the Empire, by his quick Reduction of the Bishop of Cologne. His March to the Danube, and reducing of Bavaria was his own Contrivance, and executed with a Bravery hardly to be paralleled in any History, hath got him so great Reputation, as to make him also the growing Hopes of Italy, which growns under the Weight of the present French Power.’

Monmouth, Duchess of : 74
Anne Scott, Duchess of Monmouth and Buccleuch (1651-1732) was married to James, the 1st Duke of Monmouth, Charles II’s illegitimate son by Lucy Walter, who staged the unsuccessful 1685 rebellion against his uncle, King James II, and who was executed the same year. In May 1688, she was married again to Charles, Lord Cornwallis.

Montague, Duke of : 37
John Montagu, Duke and Earl of Montagu, Marquis and Viscount of Mounthermer, and Baron Montagu of Boughton, Great Master of the Order of the Bath, Master of the Great Wardrobe, Master Forester to his Majesty, Warden of Rockingham Bailywick and of Geddington Woods in the Forest of Rockingham in the County of Northampton and Lord Lieutenant of the Counties of Northampton and Warwick (1688-1749) married Lady Mary Churchill, the daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough, in 1705. He was a Grandmaster of the Freemasons as well as Grand Master of the Order of the Bath, and was appointed Governor of St Lucia and St Vincent in 1722 by George I. He was renowned for his practical jokes, the Duchess of Marlborough, Sarah Churchill, commenting that 'all my son-in-law's talents lie in things natural to boys of fifteen, and he is two and fifty.' He was a great planter of trees, reputedly planting some seventy miles of lime avenues on his estate in Northamptonshire, and sponsored the first black student at Cambridge. He also encouraged the black poet and writer Ignatius Sancho in his efforts to acquire an education.

Newcastle, Duke of : 32
Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle, Marquis and Earl of Clare, Viscount and Baron Pelham of Laughton and Bar, Lord Lieutenant of the Counties of Middlesex, Westminster and Nottingham, Keeper of his Majesty's Forest of Sherwood, and Park of Tolewood, one of his Maetsy's Principal Secretaries of State and one of the Governors of the Charter House (1693-1768), married Lady Harriet Godolphin, the daughter of the Duke of Marlborough, in 1717, when he also became a Privy Councillor. In 1719 he was one of the Lord Chief Justices with whom the King left power when he visited Hanover, and in 1724 he was appointed Secretary of State for the Southern Department on the advice of Robert Walpole. George I had insisted on his being appointed godfather to the Prince of Wales' (later George II) son, William, contrary to the Prince's wishes. At the christening, the Prince of Wales had called the Duke of Newcastle a 'rogue' and threatened him with revenge, at which the King had put his son under arrest and banished him from St James' Palace. The Duke nevertheless survived the change of sovereign.

Norfolk, Duke of : 42
Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Arundel, Surrey, Norfolk and Norwich, and Baron Howard Mowbray, Segrave, Brewse of Gower, Fitz Allen, Warren, Clun, Oswalstree, Maltravers, Graystock, Ferdon, Lovetot, Strange of Blackmere, and Howard of Castlerising; Earl Marshal, and Heredirary Marshal of England (1683-1732) became Duke on the death of his uncle Henry in 1701. He was a Catholic and therefore excluded from all government places. He was committed to the Tower on October 27, 1722, on suspicion of high treason in connection with the Atterbury plot, to be kept safe and close, his servants John Jauncey and John Robinson to be with him. He was accused of corresponding with Jernegan the Pretender's agent in Flanders, the letters intended for the Duke being addressed to 'Mrs Jones'. Upon the application of the minister, October 26, 1722, under the suspension of Habeas Corpus Act, for the consent of the House of Lords to the Duke's detention, the motion was carried, though opposed by peers whose protests are recorded in the Journals under six heads (Lords Journals, xxii, 26-28). The evidence was not sufficient to secure a conviction and upon the passing of the act for Bishop Atterbury's banishment in May 1723, the Duke was discharged on bail. (Diary of General Williamson, Appendix)

Northampton, Earl of : 38
James Compton, fifth Earl of Northampton and Baron Compton of Compton (1687-1754) was one of the Knights for the county of Warwick in 1710, and was called to the House of Peers in 1711. He bore part of the regalia at the coronation of George I, and was one of the assistants to the Duke of Somerset, chief mourner at the funeral of Frederick Prince of Wales. 

Ormonde, Duke of : 60
James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormond (1665-1745) was ‘Grandson to that Duke who was Lord-Lieutenant most of King Charles the Second's Reign, and Son to the Earl of Ossory, who was General in Holland. He was, when very young, chosen by the University of Oxford to be their Chancellor; and, to his Power, then opposed the Growth of Popery, and the Despotic Measures of King James's Court, which he left, along with Prince George, at the Revolution, and declared for the Laws and Liberties of his Country.

All King William's Reign he was a faithful Follower of his Person, and for him; attended him in all his Campaigns; was Captain of his Horse-Guards, Gentleman of his Bed Chamber, and Lieutenant-General of his Army. His Expences were so great Abroad, that it may be said, he gained more Reputation by his Generosity, than many Generals have by their Armies; and did a great deal of Honour to his Country, to the lessening his own Estate.

On he Queen's Accession to the Throne, he had the Command given him of the Expedition to Cadiz; which miscarried not by his Fault, as appeared plainly in the 
Examination of that Affair in the House of Peers; and he had the good Luck in his Return, to burn the French Fleet at Vigo, and to assist at the solemn Te Deum, sung by the Queen at St. Paul's for that Expedition; when it appeared how much he was the Darling of the People, who neglected their Sovereign, and applauded him more, perhaps, than ever any Subject was on any Occasion.

He was sent soon after Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, where he governs with more Affection from the People, and his Court is in greater Splendor, than ever was known in that Kingdom.

He certainly is one of the most generous, princely, brave Men that ever was, but Good-natured to a Fault; loves Glory, and consequently is crouded with Flatterers: Never knew how to refuse any body, which was the Reason why he obtained so little from King William, asking for every body.

He hath all the Qualities of a Great Man, except that one of a Statesman, hating Business; loves, and is beloved by the Ladies; of a low Stature; but well-shaped; a good Mien and Address; a fair Complexion, and very beautiful Face. He is about Forty Years old.’ (Macky) 

Richmond Lodge was bought by the Duke of Ormonde, along with 58 acres bordering the Thames. It was described by Macky in 1714 as 'a perfect Trianon [the late 17th century garden at Versailles], everything in it and about it answerable to the grandeur and magnificence of its great master ... There is a fine avenue that runs from the front of the house to the Town of Richmond at a half mile distance one way and from the other front to the Riverside, both inclosed with balustrades of iron. The gardens are very spacious and well kept. There is a fine terrace towards the River. But above all the woods cut out into walks with plenty of birds singing in it, make it a most delicious habitation.' It was forfeited by Ormonde for his support of the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. It was here that the future Queen Caroline brought together William Kent and Charles Bridgeman to design her garden, and it was this garden that formed, with the garden at Kew, the basis for the present Kew Gardens.

Pembroke, Earl of : 69
Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke and 5th Earl of Montgomery, Baron Herbert of Cardiff, Ross of Kendal, Parr, Fitzhugh, Marmion, St Quintin, and Herbert of Shurland, Lord Lieutenant of the County of Wilts, and one of the Governors of the Charterhouse (1656-1733) was made Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire in 1688, and went in 1689 as Ambassador Extraodinary to the States General (Holland). He became afterwards Colonel of a regiment of marines, first Commissioner of the Admiralty, President of the Royal Society and Lord Privy Seal. He also acted as plenipotentiary at the negotiations at Ryswick in 1697. He was elected a Knight of the Garter in 1700. He was Lord President of the Council under Queen Anne, and was appointed as one of the Commissioners to treat of the union between England and Scotland. He put together a large collection of ancient marbles at his country seat of Wilton. He had 7 sons and 5 daughters. 

Petre, Lord : 
Robert-James Petre, 8th Lord Petre (d1742). The fourth Lord Petre died in the Tower of London in 1684, implicated in the Titus Oates plot. 
‘‘The families concerned (in Alexander Pope’s poem) The Rape of the Lock -- the Fermors, Petres, and Carylls -- were prominent members of that group of great intermarried Roman Catholic families owning land in the home counties, most of whom came within the circle of Pope's friends and acquaintances and to whom Pope considered his own family to belong. Some time before 21 March, 1712, when Pope sold his poem to Lintott, Robert, Lord Petre had cut off a lock of Arabella Fermor's hair, and John Caryll had suggested to Pope that he should write a poem to heal the estrangement that followed between the two families: 
The stealing of Miss Belle Fermor's hair, was taken too seriously, and caused an estrangement between the two families, though they had lived so long in great friendship before. A common acquaintance and well-wisher to both, desired me to write a poem to make a jest of it, and laugh them together again. It was with this view that I wrote The Rape of the Lock.
The incident behind the poem has never been authoritatively tracked down to place and time. It is improbable, but possible, that it happened, as the poem states, at Hampton Court; and the counter-claims of the houses of the Fermors, Petres, or Carylls have never been substantiated.’ (Twickenham, Vol II, page 83)

Portland, Duke of : 43
Henry Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland (1682-1726), was ‘Page to King William, when Prince of Orange; and by his assiduous Fidelity came to be his chief Favourite. 

'His Majesty made him a Peer of England, and gave him the Garter, thew away such Grants of Lands on him, as obliged the Parliament to interpose, and put a Stop to them. He gave him the absolute and intire Government of Scotland, made him a Lieutenant General, first Lord of his Bed-Chamber, and Privy Purse. He was sent Ambassador to France against his Will, being sensible of the growing Favour of my Lord Albemarle, (another Dutchman his Enemy) and he had Reason, for that Lord prevailed so far in his Absence, as to oblige him, by several little Affronts, to lay down all his Employments: And alto' the King still esteemed him, yet it cannot be said he was any more in Favour all the King's Life. 

On the Queen's Accession to the Throne, he was turned out of the Post of Keeper of Windsor great Park. He is supposed to be the richest Subject in Europe, very profuse in Gardening, Birds, and Houshold Furniture, but mighty frugal and parsimonious in every Thing else; of a very lofty Mien, and yet not proud; of no deep Understanding, considering his Experience; neither much beloved nor hated by any Sort of People, English or Dutch.’ (Macky).

William Bentinck, Duke and Earl of Portland, Marquis of Titchfield, Viscount Woodstock and Baron of Cirencester.

Richmond, Duke of : 24
Charles Lennox (1701-1750), 2nd Duke of Richmond and Duke of Lennox, Earl of March and Darnley; Baron of Setrington and Methuen, Aid de Camp to his Majesty, and Captain in the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards Blue, was the grandson of Charles II by his mistress Louise de Penencourt de Querouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. He was made a Knight of the Bath in 1725 and a Knight of the Garter in 1726, at which time he was one of the Lords of the Bedchamber and an Aide de Camp to George I. He accompanied George II to Flanders in 1743 and the Duke of Cumberland against the Jacobites in 1745.

Roxborough, Duke of :

Rutland, Duke of : 29
John Manners, (3rd) Duke and Earl of Rutland, Marquis of Granby, Baron Roos of Hamlake, Trusbul, and Belvoir, and Baron Manners of Haddon, Chancellor of the Dutchy of Lancaster, and Lord Lieutenant of the County of Leicester (1696-1779) was elected Knight of the Garter in 1722 and sworn a member of the King’s Privy Council and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1727. He was Lord Lieutenant of Leicester, with seats at Haddon Hall in Derbyshire and Belvoir Castle in Lincolnshire.

St Alban’s, Duke of : 29
George Beauclair, 2nd Duke of St Albans, Earl of Burford, and Baron of Heddington, Knight of the Bath, Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the County of Bucks, and Register of the High Court of Chancery, Master of the Horse to the Queen (1696-1751) was a Member of Parliament for Bodmin and New Windsor. He was elected Knight of the Bath in 1725, and Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of Bucks (Berks?) in 1726. He was made Governor of Windsor Castle and one of the Lords of the Bedchamber in 1730.

Salisbury, Earl of : 34
James Cecil, 5th Earl of Salisbury, Viscount Cranburn and Baron Cecil of Effingdon, High Steward of Hertford (1691-1728), was Lord Lieutenant of the County of Hertford.

Somerset, Duke of : 63
Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, Earl of Hertford, Viscount and Baron Beauchamp of Hache, Baron of Sudley, and Baron Seymour of Trowbridge, and Lord of the Honour of Cockermouth and Petworth, Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, and one of the Governors of the Charter House (1662-1748), called the proud Duke of Somerset on account of his magnificent and stately manner of living. He was admitted Knight of the Garter in 1684, and assisted in collecting the militia against the Monmouth rebellion in 1685. He refused, however, to introduce the Pope’s Nuncio to his audience at Windsor, and was deprived of his place as Lord of the Bedchamber, and the command of the third regiment of dragoons by James II. He was one of the first lords to recognise William of Orange on his landing in 1688. He was afterwards President of the Council and Lord of the Regency on William’s visit to Holland in 1701. He was a Privy Councillor to Queen Anne, Master of her Horse and one of the Commissioners for treating of the Union with Scotland. He became Privy Councillor to George I. He retired to his seat at Petworth some years before his death in 1748.

Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset (1662-1748) married Lady Elizabeth Percy, daughter and only surviving issue of Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland. He was Master of the Horse from 1702-1716.

Macky : Of the Antient Family of Seymour, who made so great a Figure in the Reign of Edward the Sixth.

This Duke, in the Reign of King Charles the Second, had the Garter, and married the Heiress of Piercy of Northumberland, which much increased his Estate, but he made no considerable figure, till the Reign of King James, when, being in Waiting as Bed-chamberman, at the arrival of the Pope’s Nuncio in England, and refusing to assist at the Ceremony of the Introduction, he was dismissed from all his Employments.

He notwithstanding did not enter into the Measures of the Revolution, but for some Years warmly opposed the Designs of King William’s Ministry; joined in Impeaching the Partition and protested against acquitting those who advised it.

Yet, upon the French King’s sending the Duke of Anjou to Spain, he came over to the Service of his Country, and was made President of the Council, and joined with a great deal of Zeal, in the Methods concerted for preventing the Growing Power of France.

On the Queen’s accession to the Throne, he was made Master of the Horse; and appears at Court with a great deal of Warmth, for a Party that seems to suffer by King William’s Death.

He is of middle Stature, well Shaped, a very Black Complexion, a lover of Musick and Poetry; of good Judgment, but by Reason of a great Hesitation in his Speech, wants Expression. He is about forty two years old.

Defoe : The present Duke having married the greatest Heiress in Britain, and enjoy’d her and the Estate for above Forty Years, and besides, having been Master of the Horse many Years also, he is immensely Rich, and very well merits the good Fortune he has met with.

Macaulay : In a short time a still more ostentatious pageant was performed in honour of the Holy See. It was determined that the Nuncio should go to court in solemn procession. Some persons on whose obedience the King had counted showed, on this occasion, for the first time, signs of a mutinous spirit. Among these the most conspicuous was the second temporal peer of the realm, Charles Seymour, commonly called the proud Duke of Somerset. He was in truth a man in whom the pride of birth and rank amounted almost to a disease. The fortune which he had inherited was not adequate to the high place which he held among the English aristocracy: but he had become possessed of the greatest estate in England by his marriage with the daughter and heiress of the last Percy who wore the ancient coronet of Northumberland. Somerset was only in his twenty-fifth year, and was very little known to the public. He was a Lord of the King’s Bedchamber, and colonel of one of the regiments which had been raised at the time of the Western insurrection. He had not scrupled to carry the sword of state into the royal chapel on days of festival: but he now resolutely refused to swell the pomp of the Nuncio. Some members of his family implored him not to draw on himself the royal displeasure: but their entreaties produced no effect. The King himself expostulated. ‘I thought, my Lord,’ said he, ‘that I was doing you a great honour in appointing you to escort the minister of the first of all crowned heads.’ ‘Sir,’ said the Duke, ‘ I am advised that I cannot obey Your Majesty without breaking the law.’ ‘I will make you fear me as well as the law,’ answered the King insolently. ‘Do you not know that I am above the law?’ ‘Your Majesty may be above the law,’ replied Somerset: ‘but I am not; and, while I obey the law, I fear nothing.’ The King turned away in high displeasure; and Somerset was instantly dismissed from his posts in the household and the army.

Southwell, Lord :
Edward Southwell (d1730) was principal Secretary of State, Privy Councillor of the kingdom of Ireland, Member of Parliament for Kinsale and Clerk to the Privy Council of England. He had a house in Spring Gardens.

Sunderland, Earl of :
Robert Spencer, Earl of Sunderland and Baron Spencer of Wormleighton. 

Sussex, Earl of : 35
Talbot Yelverton, 1st Earl of Sussex, Viscount Longueville, Baron Grey of Ruthven, Knight of the Bath, and Baronet, Deputy Earl Marshal of England, PC (1690-1731) was created Earl of Sussex in 1717, and appointed deputy Earl Marshal of England and a Knight of the Order of the Bath in 1725. He acted as Earl Marshal at the coronation of George II, having been previously sworn a member of the Privy Council. His seat was at Easton Maudit in Northamptonshire.

Trevor, Lord : 67
Thomas Trevor, 1st Baron Trevor of Bromham, (1658-1730) was made Solicitor General in 1692 and Attorney General in 1695. He acted as Lord Privy Seal from 1726-1730.

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