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César de Saussure: Letters from London, 1725-1730 Notes on the text

The journey began in Lausanne, on the North shore of Lake Geneva, and he presumably travelled by road the 30 miles to Yverdon, at the head of Lake Neuchatel, from which point his journey was all by boat.

Bienne is the French name for German Biel. 

Soleure is the French version of Solothurn.

Hans Holbein (b1497 Augsburg - d1543 London) was in Basle from 1515-1526. He married a tanner's widow and became a burgher in 1525. He left Basle in late 1526 for England, returning in 1528. He left again in 1532 and spent the remaining eleven years of his life mainly in England.

Hüningen had passed in the 17th century by purchase to Louis XIV of France and was fortified between 1679 and 1681 by Vauban. It surrendered to the Austrians in 1815 and was dismantled.

Claude-Louis-Hector duc de Villars (1653-1734) was one of the generals of Louis XIV. He was defeated by the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy at Malplaquet in 1709, but successfully defended the French frontier during the subsequent years.

Seltz is on the west bank of the Rhine, 50 kilometres north of Strasbourg, Philipsbourg another of Louis XIV's fortifications.

Strasbourg was annexed by France in 1681.

The clock was built between 1352 and 1354. It is still functioning, though the present mechanism dates from 1842. Victor Hugo described the cathedral as 'a prodigy of the gigantesque and delicate'.

The Palatinate had been systmeatically destroyed by French armies in campaigns of 1674 and 1688/9, and many of its inhabitants, who were Protestant, had emigrated. From 1704-1710, around 13,000 arrived in England, some of whom subsequently travelled to America. 

Thomas Jefferson writes of Heidelberg 'This chateau is the most noble ruin I have ever seen, having been reduced to that state by the French in the time of Louis XIV, 1693. Nothing remains under cover but the chapel. The situation is romantic and pleasing beyond expression.'

Mayence is the French for German Mainz. The gardens were laid out for Lothar Franz von Sehönborn, Archbishop and Prince Elector of Mainz, by the architect Maximilian von Welsch between 1707 and 1723. 


Bacharach is supposedly named after Bacchus, the god of wine.

The Rheinfels Castle at St Goar withstood the attack of more than 20,000 French troops in 1692. 

This is the part of the Rhine by the Loreley Rock, now generally considered the most romantic and attractive part of the journey.

Treves is the French for Trier.

The Capuchins were founded by Matteo di Bassi of Urbino (d1552) and are followers of the teachings of St Francis of Assisi. Their name relates to their wearing of a pointed hood (capuche). They were an important force during the Counter Reformation.

Bonn was destroyed in 1689 by Habsburg troops who defeated the pro French Egon von Fürstenburg and replaced him with their candidate for archbishop, Joseph Clemens von Bayern (1671-1723), under whose direction building commenced on the great baroque residence, which his successor, Clemens August (1700-1761), brought to completion. 

Düsseldorf saw a brief period of exuberance under the Elector Johann Willhelm II, called Jan Willem (1658-1716), who married the daughter of Cosimo III de Medici and became a significant patron of the arts.

The fortification of Wesel began in 1680 under the direction of the Elector of Brandenburg, Friedrich Willhelm (called 'the Great'). Napoleon established his strategic bridgehead here in 1811.

Erasmus (1466-1536) was born Gerrit Gerritzoons, probably in Rotterdam, but lived only four years there, most of his adult life being spent in Paris, England, Leuven and Basle.

Hendrick de Keyser (1565-1621) was commissioned by the States General in 1614 to erect the monument to William the Silent, Prince of Orange, who is attributed with founding the Dutch nation. It was finished by his son, Pieter.

Greenwich Hospital was built between 1675 and 1716 to designs by Christopher Wren.

St James Palace was a Tudor building which became the official residence of the monarch from 1698, when Whitehall Palace burnt down, until 1809, when it was destroyed by fire (except for the gatehouse, which remains). It was commissioned by Henry VIII in 1530 and occupied the site of a former leper hospital dedicated to St James the Less, from which both the palace and the nearby St James' Park derive their names.

Charles Fitzroy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, 3rd Earl of Arlington (1683-1757) : according to Jonathan Swift was 'almost a slobberer, without one good quality', and Lord Waldegrave found him 'totally illiterate; yet from long observation and great natural sagacity he became the courtier of his time.'

Lionel Cranfield Sackville (1688-1765), 1st Duke of Dorset, was Lord Steward of the Household from 1725-1730. He was the son of Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset, the libertine and sometime poet.

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (1475-1530) was largely responsible for the original building of Hampton Court and York Place (which became part of Whitehall Palace), but not St James' Palace.

The second chapel was actually built for Charles I's consort, Queen Henrietta Maria, in 1625, closed in 1642 and re-opened in 1662 by Charles II's consort, Queen Catherine of Braganza, but closed again when she moved to Somerset House in 1671. It was re opened by James II and used for Catholic worship from 1685 until his flight in 1688.

Ehrengard Melusina von Schulenberg, Duchess of Kendal was nicknamed the 'maypole'. George brought her with him from Hanover, together with Charlotte Sophia Kielmannsegge, nicknamed the 'elephant'. George's wife, Sophia, had been suspected of having an affair and was locked away in Ahlden castle from 1694 until her death in 1726. Rumour had it that her suspected lover had been chopped up and buried under the floorboards.

Pall Mall, Pell Mell, Paille Maille, Palle-malle, Pelemele, Jeu de Mail was a mallet and ball game played in a long, open space. In April 1661 Pepys records : 'To St. James's Park, where I saw the Duke of York playing at Pelemele, the first time that I ever saw the sport'. The ball was driven hard with a mallet along the length of the course and then had to be sent through a hoop suspended at some height, which looked rather like a hangman's noose, this last requiring a different type of mallet and a more deft technique. It may be an ancestor of golf, and distant relation to croquet.

Now extinct: this appears to be an error. It was the Cavendish line which ended in 1691 with the death of Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, but his estates passed to his third daughter, who was married to John Holles, Earl of Clare, who was created Duke of Newcastle in 1694.

John Milton (1608-1674) was a poet, author of the famous long poem Paradise Lost, and propagandist for the government during the Commonwealth.

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was a poet and playwright whose works include Hamlet and Macbeth.

Matthew Prior (1664-1721) was a poet, propagandist and diplomat associated with the Tory party.

John Dryden (1631-1700) was one of the first professional writers, a poet, a playwright and a translator of Greek and Roman authors.

Charles de St Denis, Seigneur de St Evremond (1610-1703) was a soldier who fell into disfavour with the French court in 1662 and went into exile, first in Holland, then England. He was an essayist, a philosopher and a friend of the Duchesse de Mazarine.

Carvings of immodest design: a favourite subject for the carvings was a master belabouring a scholar's buttocks, or a woman mistreating a man in a similar fashion, or sometimes a representation of Aristotle ridden by a courtesan.

The funeral effigies are now housed in a Norman undercroft and include early wooden effigies as well as the later wax effigies described here. They played an important part in the funeral ritual, offering a visible likeness which acted as a focus for the ceremonial.

General Monk, Duke of Albermarle (1600-1670), was a soldier who fought mainly on the Parliamentary side during the civil war and who later supervised the restoration of the monarchy.

Frances Teresa Stuart, Duchess of Richmond (1647-1702) was the original model for the image of Britannia on the coinage. She was described by Pepys as 'the greatest beauty I ever saw' (13th July 1663)

The House of Parliament : the hall described is Westminster Hall, the only part of the old Westminster Palace to survive into the 21st century. Originally designed as a place for feasting and entertaining, it became the home of the courts of law and was the scene of many dramatic trials including those of Thomas More and Charles I.

The House of Lords met in a room known as the White Chamber until 1801, then in a room once occupied by the Court of Requests until 1834.

The woolsacks were introduced by Edward III (1327-1377) and are still used.

The House of Commons met in St Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Palace, from 1547 until the building burned down in 1834.

The Order of the Garter was instituted by Edward III (r1327-1377). Its motto was 'Honi soit qui mal pense', 'Shame on him who thinks ill of it', thought to derive from a comment by the king when he picked up a garter belonging to the Countess of Salisbury and put it on his own leg. 

The Order of the Thistle is an equivalent Scottish order which probably originated in the 16th century, but was re established by James II in 1687.

The 1st Duke of Portland was Hans William Bentinck (d1709) who had come over from the Netherlands with William III. He was the king's closest confidant and nursed him when sick of the small pox, acted as a general in William's army in Ireland and was largely instrumental in negotiating the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697. He had large estates settled on him by William.

The Banqueting Hall was built to designs by Inigo Jones (1573-1652), who was appointed Surveyor of the King's Works in 1615.

The Admiralty was completed in 1726 to designs by Thomas Ripley, a former carpenter and protégé of Sir Robert Walpole. It still stands, behind a later screen designed by Robert Adam, and is known as either the Old Admiralty or the Ripley Building.

Charing Cross was originally the location of one of the crosses erected by order of Edward I to commemorate the resting places of the coffin of his queen (Eleanor) on its journey from Harby, near Lincoln, to Westminster Abbey in 1290 (there were twelve in all, three of which survive). The cross was destroyed during the Commonwealth and the equestrian statue of Charles I, which was cast in 1633 to designs by Hubert le Sueur and which survived an order of Parliament for it to be melted down, was put up in 1675. A replica of the Cross was later erected in a different place, in front of Charing Cross station. The old Charing Cross was located at the intersection of Cockspur Street, Whitehall and the Strand, roughly corresponding to what is now the southern part of Trafalgar Square.

Covent Garden was a development promoted by the Duke of Bedford and Charles I using the design skills of Inigo Jones. It was built in imitation of the piazzas Jones had seen on his tours of Italy, with, as its dominating feature, the church of St Paul flanked by two houses to a classical design which formed the western side of the square. Fashionable London would soon move out, however, to the more private squares later erected to the west and north, and Covent Garden began to develop a different reputation based on the fruit and vegetable market, the theatres and the prostitutes who thrived in the area.


Ancaster House (Nos 59-60), originally Lindsey House, was built to designs by Inigo Jones for Robert Bertie, Earl of Lindsey, general of the king's forces at the beginning of the civil war. 

Newcastle House (No 66), on the corner of Great Queen's Street, originally Powis House, was built in 1686 by Captain William Wincle for William Herbert, Viscount Montgomery and Marquis of Powis. It was forfeited to the Crown after Powis accompanied James II into exile, and sold to John Holles, Duke of Newcastle, who had, according to the 19th century commentator Parkman, 'a feverish craving for place and power, joined to a total unfitness for both'.

Lincoln's Inn is one of the four main Inns of Court (the others being Inner Temple, Middle Temple and Gray's Inn), which are unincorporated bodies of lawyers having the power to call to the Bar (to plead cases) those of their members that have the proper qualifications. The Inns, a word which in the 14th century meant a town house, particularly one which housed students, provided chambers to live in, a hall to eat in, a church or chapel, and a library for lawyers and their apprentices.

In 1703 John Sheffield, the first Duke of Buckingham and Normanby, rebuilt Arlington House, which stood on the site of the old mulberry gardens planted at the command of James I, in an attempt to encourage silk growing in England. It became known as Buckingham House and was acquired by George III in 1761, becoming then Buckingham Palace.

John, 2nd Duke of Montagu (1688-1749), was a fellow of the Royal Society. Neither of his two sons survived him and the title became extinct on his death. Montagu House in Bloomsbury was bought in 1753 by the government and became the site of the British Museum.

Bedford House occupied the north side of Bloomsbury Square. It was demolished in the early 19th century and replaced by terraced houses.

Somerset House was built to the order of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector (ie effective ruler of the country) during the minority of his nephew Edward VI, in the late 1540's. He owned some land in the area, but also had various church and other properties demolished to create the required space, and used materials from the demolition of the charnel house of St Paul's and the church and tower of the Priory Church of St. John of Jerusalem at Clerkenwell in the building. He was executed in 1552 and the property taken by the Crown. It was demolished in 1776 and replaced by the magnificent building designed by William Chambers which stands today.

Temple Bar was the site of one of the original bars which were set up to indicate the limits of the City authority where the jurisdiction went beyond the original walls of London. It was at first probably no more than a bar across the road and took its name from the Temple law courts close by, which in turn had taken their name from the Knights Templar, who had once occupied the Temple Church. It was built from Portland stone and completed in 1672 and was often used to display the heads and other body parts of traitors on spikes. The gate became a cause of traffic congestion during the nineteenth century. It was taken down in 1878 and re erected in 1889 at Theobald's (pronounced Tibbalds) Park in Hertfordshire to form the entrance to the park of the brewer, Sir Henry Meux, at the instigation of Lady Meux. It was moved once again in 2003 and now forms the pedestrian entrance to Paternoster Square, near the north west tower of St Paul's Cathedral.

Fleet Ditch : Alexander Pope writes : 'To where Fleet Ditch with disemboguing streams / Rolls the large tribute of dead dogs to Thames / The King of dykes from whom no sluice of mud / With deeper sable blots the silver flood.' and Swift : 'Seepings from butchers stalls, dung, guts and blood, / Drowned puppies, stinking sprats, all drenched in mud, / Dead cats and turnip-tops come tumbling down the flood.' It crosses Fleet Street at its junction with Ludgate Hill and issues into the Thames by Blackfriars.

Ludgate was one of London's original gates and operated also as a prison. According to one account quoted by Strype, six 'cryers at the gate' were employed to keep up a continuous cry of 'Remember the poor prisoners!' to the passers-by.

St Pauls was built to designs by Christopher Wren between 1675 and 1714 after the previous cathedral on the site burnt down in the Great Fire of 1666.

The dimensions are 502 feet from east to west, 244 feet from north to south and 370ft high.

The clock cost £300 and was made by Langley Bradley in 1708. Its minute hands are 9 feet 8 inches long.

The statue of Queen Anne with four attendant figures was by Francis Bird (1667-1731) and was erected in 1712. Having sustained some damage and lost many fingers and other parts, a replica was commissioned and put in place in 1886, and the original removed and ear-marked for sale for the weight of marble. It was rescued from a pit in a mason's yard near Vauxhall Bridge by Augustus Hare and re-erected at his house called Holmhurst near Hastings, now itself sold off to developers for conversion to flats.

The frescoes were painted by Sir James Thornhill (1676-1734) and represent the life of St Paul. They are not generally well regarded.

Interior decoration : Wren's scheme of interior decoration was never implemented.

The Guildhall was one of the few buildings in the City to survive the Great Fire of 1666, though the roof and all its outbuildings were destroyed.

St Mary-le-Bow was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 and rebuilt to designs by Wren modelled on the Roman Basilica of Constantine. It was destroyed again in 1941, but rebuilt to Wren's original design by 1961. The bells are famously used to define a cockney (born within earshot of Bow Bells).

The Stocks Market was a market for fruits, roots and herbs. It was originally the site of a stocks, hence its name. The Mansion House was later built on the site.

The statue of Charles II was purchased by Sir Robert Vyner unfinished on the continent: it had been intended to depict John Sobieski, the Polish king who saved Vienna from the Turks. Sobieski's head was replaced by the head of Charles and the turbaned Turk on whom he was trampling became Oliver Cromwell. The statue was presented by the City to Robert Vyner Esq, a descendant of the donor, after the Stocks Market was cleared to provide a site for the Mansion House.

The Royal Exchange, built on the site of Gresham's Royal Exchange of 1567, which succumbed to the Great Fire of 1666, was designed by Edward Jerman (1605-1668), who was also responsible for designs for eight of the Halls of the Livery Companies and St Paul's School. It burnt down in 1838.

The statue of Charles II was by Spiller, and the kings of England mostly by Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630-1700), whose best known works were the statues of Melancholy and Raving Madness for the gate of Bedlam (The Royal Bethlem Hospital).

Change Alley is where the Stock Exchange traces its origins. Expelled from the Royal Exchange for rowdiness in 1698, the stock brokers moved into the streets and coffee houses round about, particularly Jonathan's coffee house in Change Alley. In 1773 they moved into a new building, briefly called New Jonathan's then the Stock Exchange, in Sweeting's Alley, opposite the east door of the Royal Exchange, and to a new building in Capel Court in 1802, which was rebuilt in 1854. 

The Monument is 202 feet high and 202 feet from the baker's house in Pudding Lane where the fire is thought to have started.

Wren wanted to place a statue of Charles II on top, as the rebuilder of London and in imitation of similar columns in ancient Rome, but was thwarted in his design.

The bas relief is by Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630-1700).

The inscription accusing the Roman Catholics of responsibility for starting the fire was finally removed in 1831.

Thames Bridge: this is the original London Bridge, built at the beginning of the 13th century.

The water wheels under London Bridge were installed by Peter Morice, a Dutchman, in the 1580's. They were destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, and replaced by his grandson. Powered by the tide, they were capable of pumping over 100,000 gallons of water an hour to a height of 120 feet.

Two large hospitals: these were St Thomas and Guy's, the latter of which opened in 1726 and was for incurables refused admission to St Thomas. The building of Guy's was largely funded by Sir Thomas Guy (1644-1724), a printer and publisher, who had been successful on the Stock Market during the South Sea Bubble of 1720.

The first Customs House had been built around 1275, and rebuilt in 1378 and 1559. It was again destroyed by the Great Fire of London in 1666, and rebuilt to a design by Christopher Wren. This building in turn suffered severe damage in an explosion of 1714 and was rebuilt to a design by Thomas Ripley (completed 1725). It burnt down once more in 1814 and was replaced by the building which still stands today.

The Tower of London was built inside Roman city walls in the reign of William the Conqueror (r1066-1087). It was enlarged by the addition of a moat and two curtain walls with towers between 1190 and 1285 and a wharf was added by the end of the reign of Richard II (r1377-1399).

The East India Company was formed in 1600 and was given monopoly priveleges on trade with the East Indies. During the seventeenth century it established trading posts on the east and west coasts of India and in the eighteenth century transformed itself from a trading company into an organisation which virtually ruled India.

The Grand Storehouse and its vast collection of weapons was destroyed in a fire of 1841.

The archives were removed during the 1850's to the Public Records Office.

The mint was moved out in 1812.

On n'a rien pour rien - you get nothing for nothing.

St Bartholomew's Hospital was established in 1102 by Rahere, the minstrel and jester to Henry I, who claimed to have seen Bartholomew the apostle in a vision and further that the saint had directed him to found a hospital and a church at Smithfield. He also secured the right to hold a fair on the feast day of his patron saint, which became Bartholomew Fair. By 1725 this had been extended to some fourteen days of riotous merriment. It was suppressed in 1855.

The Bethlehem Royal Hospital (Bedlam) moved to its site in Moorgate in 1675. The two statues, of Raving and Melancholy Madness were sculpted by Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630-1700). The hospital moved from this site in 1814 to St George's Fields in Lambeth and subsequently to a site in Croydon, where the statues are now housed in the museum.

The 'Folly' seems to have moved about since several residents of Twickenham wrote to the Lord Mayor 'complaining that there is lately fixed near the Shore of Twickenham on the River Thames a Vessell made like a Barge and called the Folly wherein divers loose and disorderly persons are frequently entertained who have behaved in a very indecent Manner and do frequently afront divers persons of Fashion and Distinction who often in an Evening Walk near that place, and desired so great a Nuisance might be removed.'

Though it has its origins in medieval times, the Order of the Bath was established by King George I by letters patent under the Great Seal dated 18 May 1725. Bathing was one of the preliminaries to investiture, which also included prayer and fasting, all of which formalities were abolished in 1815.

John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu (1688-1749) married Mary Churchill, the daughter of the Duke of Marlborough. He was a Grandmaster of the Freemasons as well as Grand Master of the Order of the Bath, and was appointed Governor of St Lucia and St Vincent in 1722 by George I. He was renowned for his practical jokes, the Duchess of Marlborough, Sarah Churchill, commenting that 'all my son-in-law's talents lie in things natural to boys of fifteen, and he is two and fifty.' He was a great planter of trees, reputedly planting some seventy miles of lime avenues on his estate in Northamptonshire, and sponsored the first black student at Cambridge. He also encouraged the black poet and writer Ignatius Sancho in his efforts to acquire an education.

Prince William Augustus, the Duke of Cumberland (1721-1765) led the English forces against the Jacobites in 1745, ruthlessly crushing the rebellion and earning himself the name of 'Butcher Cumberland'.

Robert Walpole (1676-1745) was effectively Prime Minister from 1721 until he resigned in 1742.

Tria in unum - three in one, probably a reference to the three crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Dalmatic - a loose, long, wide-sleeved vestment open at the sides.

Charles Paulet, 3rd Duke of Bolton (1685-1754) : Lord John Hervey writes that "being as proud as if he had been of any consequence besides what his employments made him, as vain as if he had some merit, and as necessitous as if he had no estate, so he was troublesome at Court, hated in the country, and scandalous in his regiment. The dirty tricks he played to cheat the Government of men, or his men of half-a-crown, were things unknown to any Colonel but his Grace, no griping Scotsman excepted." He is shown on Hogarth's print of the Beggars' Opera watching his future bride, Lavinia Fenton, in the role of Polly Peachum (far right).

Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset (1662-1748), Macaulay describes as 'a man in whom the pride of birth and rank amounted almost to a disease.'

Newgate was one of the five principle gates of the city. It was used as a prison since at least the time of Henry I (r1100-1135). Its first storey, over the arch, was by custom common to all prisoners 'to walk in and beg out of'. It was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 and rebuilt. It was rebuilt again after its destruction in the Gordon Riots of 1780 to designs by George Dance. In 1782 there were 291 prisoners housed there, 225 men and 66 women. 100 were transports, 89 fines and 21 under sentence of death, the balance were awaiting trial. It was demolished in 1901.

The Old Bailey was a street which ran from Newgate Street to Ludgate, where the Sessions House stood. Strype (v,384) records : 'It is called the King's Commission on the Peace of Oyer and Terminer, and Gaol Delivery of Newgate, for the City of London and County of Middlesex, which court is held at Justice Hall, in the Old Bailey, commonly called the Sessions House, and generally eight times, or oftener, every year. The judges are the Lord Mayor, the Recorder, and others of his Majesty'sJustices of the Peace of the City of London, the two Sheriffs of London being always present; and oftentimes the judges.... come and sit to give their assistance. The jurors, for all matters committed in London, are citizens of London,...and the jurors for crimes and misdemeanors committed in Middlesex, are freeholders of the said county.' It has been replaced by the Central Criminal Courts.

Legit ut Clericus - he reads like a clerk.

Bridewell (St Bride's Well) had been both a Saxon and Norman palace, and was last used as a palace by Henry VIII, who spent considerable amounts of money restoring and extending it. It was handed over to the City in 1553 and became first a place for housing homeless children and disorderly women and subsequently a prison, hospital and workhouse. It was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 and rebuilt shortly thereafter in a plan comprising two large courtyards. It is described by Hatton in 1708 as 'a house of correction for idle, vagrant, loose and disorderly persons and night walkers, who are there set to hard labour, but receive clothes and diet.' Apprentices were retrained there by 20 'art masters' who taught tailoring, weaving, flax dressing and other trades.

Chelsea Hospital was designed by Christopher Wren and completed in 1692. It still stands and still operates as a hospital for old soldiers.

The painting in the dining hall was begun by Verrio and completed by Henry Cooke.

The bronze statue of Charles II is by Grinling Gibbons (1648-1721). It depicts the king as a Roman general and was given the king in 1682 by Tobias Rustat, a long time retainer. It was moved to its present location in around 1692.

The botanical garden is Chelsea Physic Garden, which was part of Chelsea Estate, owned by Hans Sloane (1660-1753).

Society of Apothocaries : the original has 'College of Medicine'.

Hans Sloane (1660-1753) gave Chelsea Physic Garden to the Apothecaries' Company (incorporated by Charter in 1617) on condition they supplied 50 new plants a year to the Royal Society until the number supplied reached 2000.

College of Physicians : the original text has 'College of Doctors'.

Coffee house : the original has public house as a translation for 'café public', but this clearly has the wrong connotations in Englich.

Salter's coffee house : James Salter (d1728), or Don Saltero as he became known through no better reason than a whim of one of his customers, opened his coffee house in Chelsea before 1697. He had been a valet and barber to Hans Sloane. At the time of this visit, the extablishment was located at No 18 Cheyne Walk.

Kensington Palace was described by the diarist Evelyn on 25th February, 1690 : 'I went to Kensington, which King William had bought off Lord Nottingham, and alter'd, but was as yet a patch'd building, but with the garden, however, is a very sweete villa, having to it the Park and a straight new way through this Park.' William III had Christopher Wren design an added storey to the north front and a new south front, and George I employed William Kent (c1685-1748) to design the State Apartments and also to paint murals in the palace.

Titian, Correggio, Veronese : during the reign of George I and George II, Kensington Palace housed many of the best paintings of the Royal Collection.

It was Charles I who in 1637 opened Hyde Park to the general public and created the 'Ring'.

Finding his walk from Kensington to Whitehall rather dangerous, William III had 300 oil lamps installed. The route came to be known as 'Rotten Row', a corruption of 'Route du Roi'.

There were public gardens at Marylebone from about 1660 to 1778. There was also a bowling green close by, which was later incorporated into the gardens. The London Gazette mentions in 1718 'illuminations in Marylebone bowling green on his Majesty's birthday'. In 1738 an orchestra was added, and entrance charges began to be made. Handel is recorded as a visitor (he lived not far away in Brook Street off Hanover Square). Sir John Fielding, the magistrate and brother to Henry Fielding, the author, mentions 'Ranelagh with its music and fireworks and Marylebone Gardens with music, wine and plum cakes.'

Large pond : the 'Marybone Bason'. London's water supply was indebted to a series of ingenious and enterprising engineers. The water was supplied through wooden pipes, made from bored out tree trunks, to conduits (outlets) in central London. The Marybone Bason was supplied by the York Buildings Steam Engine, a distinctive feature on the north bank of the Thames with its obelisk like appearance rising to 100 feet.

Sadler's Wells : the chalybeate spring was discovered in 1683 by a Mr Sadler, who was a surveyor of the highways, in the secluded grounds of a music-house he had just opened. Drinking the waters became fashionable, extravagant claims being made for their effectiveness in curing a range of diseases.

Cistern: the new river was constructed between 1609 and 1613 and runs a total of nearly 40 miles (60 kilometers), covering 20 miles (30 kilometers) as the crow flies, from the River Lee at New Gauge between Ware and Hertford into this cistern. As there was no means of pumping water at the time, the river channel had to be constructed running downhill all the way, and the scheme relied on a drop of just five and a half inches (twelve centimeters) per mile. Sections of the channel have since been put underground, but the supply of water from the New River still serves London.

Lambeth Palace has been used as a London residence by Archbishops of Canterbury since the early 13th century.

Lambeth Palace Library was begun by Archbishop Sancroft, who left his library of books to his successors on his death in 1610.

Sodrick - Southwark.

Richmond Palace : was built by order of Henry VII on the site of the older Palace of Sheen (an old English word for 'beauty spot' cf German 'schön'), which burnt down. Most of it was pulled down after 1649 when it was sold by Parliament for £13,000.

In 1685, Charles II declared 'That he held himself obliged, in Honour and Conscience, to comfort and support all such distressed Protestants, who, by reason of the Rigors and Severities, which were used towards them upon the Account of their Religion, should be forced to quit their native Country, and should desire to shelter themselves under his Royal Protection'. The Royal Bounty continued to be distributed to poor French immigrants until the 1720's, when, after allegations of corruption, detailed accounts were published, which showed £39,000 to have been distributed for the three years and three months 1721-1724 to 7,000 individuals.

The Palace at Kew was used extensively by the Royal Family during the 18th century, and held the king and his doctor during the madness of King George III.

Duke of Ormonde : This property was Richmond Lodge, bought by the Duke of Ormonde, along with 58 acres bordering the Thames. It was described by Macky in 1714 as 'a perfect Trianon [the late 17th century garden at Versailles], everything in it and about it answerable to the grandeur and magnificence of its great master ... There is a fine avenue that runs from the front of the house to the Town of Richmond at a half mile distance one way and from the other front to the Riverside, both inclosed with balustrades of iron. The gardens are very spacious and well kept. There is a fine terrace towards the River. But above all the woods cut out into walks with plenty of birds singing in it, make it a most delicious habitation.' It was forfeited by Ormonde for his support of the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. It was here that the future Queen Caroline brought together William Kent and Charles Bridgeman to design her garden, and it was this garden that formed, with the garden at Kew, the basis for the present Kew Gardens.

Henry VIII's park : this is Richmond Park, which is still the largest open space in London.

Lionel Tollemache, 3rd Earl of Dysart, was the grandson of William Murray (through his mother), who was whipping boy to Charles I. Ham House, built in 1610 for Sir Thomas Vavasour, was granted to this William Murray in 1626. He was created 1st Earl of Dysart in 1642.

Henry VIII, who appropriated Hampton Court from Cardinal Wolsey, also had a hand in forming its fabric.

The Raphael Cartoons, depicting scenes from the life of Christ and St Peter, are now at the Victoria and Albert Museum, having been sent there by instruction of Queen Victoria in 1865.

Thistleworth - Isleworth.

This is the same Duke of Somerset encountered earlier dismissing the Duke of Bolton. Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset (1662-1748) married Lady Elizabeth Percy, daughter and only surviving issue of Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland, which family had acquired Syon House by the marriage of the 9th Earl (known as the Wizard Earl) with Dorothy Devereux, sister of Elizabeth I's favourite, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex. See also the note in the Appendix ‘Characters’.

Peter 'the Wild Boy' actually lived until 1783. His celebrity in London at this time was second only to that of Mary Tofts, who reputedly gave birth to live rabbits.

The London Penny Post was established in 1680 by William Dockwra, but he was forced to surrender the business to the General Post Office, run by the government, in 1683. 

Nicholas Barbon (c1640-1698) founded London's first Fire Insurance Office in 1680. He was christened If-Jesus-Had-Not-Died-For-Thee-Thou-Hadst-Been-Damned Barbon by his father, Praise-God Barbon, though he was known as Nicholas.

The reservoir at Islington was fed by the New River.

The York Buildings Machinery fed the Marylebone Bason.

The water wheels under London Bridge were installed by Peter Morice, a Dutch engineer, in the 1580's and used tidal power to pump water into London. They were capable of pumping over 100,000 gallons of water an hour to a height of 120 feet.

Jean Desaguiliers was a French Protestant who worked with Isaac Newton. He was appointed Curator of Experiments to the Royal Society and set himself the task of proving experimentally what Newton had demonstrated using mathematics.

Beer was divided into Keeping Beer, which was matured, and Small Beer, which was not. The Small Beer was less alcoholic. Porter was a Keeping Beer made from a brown hop and matured in butts.

Ale was a lightly hopped beer, usually drunk as soon as cleared (about 3 to 4 weeks in the cask).

Arak comes from fermented date juice, sake from rice.

There were over 500 coffee-houses in London by 1739.

There were over 700 periodical newspapers by 1695. The first daily newspaper, the Daily Courant, appeared in 1702, and the numbers of newspapers produced proliferated during the 18th century.

Mist Journal : this is Mist's Weekly Journal, launched on 15 December 1716 by Nathaniel Mist. It supported the Tories and expressed Jacobite sympathies.

The Craftsman, also known as the Country Journal, was published between 1727 and 1736.

The first issue of The Spectator appeared in 1711. It was succeeded by The Guardian in 1714. Both periodicals were mainly written by Richard Steele (1672-1729) and Joseph Addison (1672-1719) under various pseudonyms, and were much imitated, both in England and abroad.

Spirits : gin was first produced in Holland in the early 17th century and became popular in England after the arrival of William and Mary from the Netherlands in 1688, when regulations regarding distillation were relaxed. It was a cheap and a strongly alcoholic drink, advertised with the following catch phrase:

Drunk for a Penny
Dead drunk for two pence
Clean straw for Nothing

Drunkenness became a major social problem and the government subsequently made several attempts to control its sale, including the Gin Act of 1736, which required retailers to obtain a licence for £50 and increased duty fivefold. Rioting ensued, and it was not until 1751 that effective legislation was introduced.

In 1636 Charles I issued a proclamation allowing 50 hackney carriages to ply for hire in London, and the number was increased to 200 during the Commonwealth, 400 at the Restoration, 600 in 1688 and 800 in 1711. 

Leadenhall Market was established in the mid 15th century. When Don Pedro de Ronquillo, the Spanish ambassador, visited the market he told Charles II that he believed there was more meat sold in that market than in all the kingdom of Spain in a whole year.

The Stocks Market was a market for fruits, roots and herbs. It was originally the site of a stocks, hence its name. The Mansion House was later built on the site.

Charles Lennox (1701-1750), 2nd Duke of Richmond and Duke of Lennox, served at the battle of Dettingen. He was a great patron of cricket.

Robert Walpole (1676-1745) was effectively Prime Minister from 1721 until he resigned in 1742.

Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was a physicist, astronomer, mathematician and alchemist who is now regarded as one of the most important contributors to the development of science. His works include the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in which he elaborated his laws of motion and theory of universal gravitation.

John Tillotson (1630-1694) was the son of a Yorkshire clothier. He was a persuasive preacher and became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1691. His literary style was much admired.

Sir George Radcliffe (1593-1657) wrote a biography of Lord Strafford.

Joseph Addison (1672-1719) was responsible for much of the content of the periodicals the Tatler, the Guardian and the Spectator, wrote an account of his travels in Italy, an account of the lives of the English poets, several plays and an opera, Rosamunde.

The latest wars : the Duke of Marlborough had won a series of victories against the French, most particularly at Blenheim (1704), Ramillies (1706), Oudenade (1708) and Malplaquet (1709).

Peregrine Hyde Osborne, 3rd Duke of Leeds (1691-1731) was the husband of Robert Walpole's daughter, Elizabeth.

Henry Nassau D'Averquerque was created by king William III baron of Alford, Viscount Boston and Earl of Grantham.

Christ's Hospital was founded by Henry VIII, though the gift was not put into practice until the end of the reign of Edward VI at the exhortation of Bishop Nicholas Ridley. 

Blue children: the boys were usually called 'blue-coat boys'.

Thomas Gresham (1519-1579) was a merchant and financial adviser to the governments of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. He bequeathed the bulk of his property to his widow, with the stipulation that after her decease his residence in Bishopsgate Street and the rents from the Royal Exchange, which he owned, should go to the Corporation of London and the Mercer's Company, for the purpose of founding a college, in which seven professors should read lectures - one for each day of the week - on astronomy, geometry, physic, law, divinity, rhetoric and music. 

Chartreuse : the Charterhouse, an anglicisation of the name Chartreuse, was founded by Thomas Sutton in 1611. It was to be a hospital for 'such as had been servants to the King's Majesty: captains either at land or sea; soldiers maimed or impotent; men fallen into decay through shipwreck, casualty or fire', and a school for forty 'poor' scholars, though 'poor' was interpreted in this context to mean those without significant landed estates, and the school became the province of the professional classes - lawyers, doctors and clergy - rather than the landed gentry or the 'poor'.


The Merchant Taylor's School was founded by the Merchant Taylor's Company in 1561. It was not the first grammar school to be founded by the company: other schools existed in Macclesfield (founded 1502), in Cornwall (founded 1508) and in Wolverhampton (founded 1508).

Sir Thomas White (1492-1567) also endowed St John's College, Oxford.

Thomas Woolston (1669-1731) published six Discourses between 1727 and 1729 in which he denied the literal interpretation of the miracles. He was fined £25 for each of the first four, and, unable to pay the fines, was put in prison, where he died.

Sarah Priddon, alias Sally Salisbury, was fined £100 and sentenced to one year imprisonment for the assault. She died in Newgate before her release. Three works relating to her life were published in 1723 : Memoirs of The Celebrated Sally Salisbury, The Conversations of Sally Salisbury, and Sally Salisbury's Letter to F. Rig.

Point d'argent, point de Suisses : no money, no Swiss. The Swiss acted as mercenaries in the wars of their neighbours.

Trinkgeld : tip, gratuity. I can find no evidence to substantiate the use of the word vins (as in the French version) or wines in this context. The noun tip was not in use at this time, though the verb tip was used in a related context, as in tip me a shilling which meant lend, or give, me a shilling.

Jonathan Swift comments similarly: 'By the Lord Harry, I shall be undone here with Christmas boxes. The rogues at the coffeehouse have raised their tax, every one giving a crown, and I gave mine for shame, besides a great many half-crowns to great men's porters etc.' Letter to Stella December 26, 1710.

Robert Walpole (1676-1745) was effectively Prime Minister from 1721 until he resigned in 1742.

Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford (1708-1732).

Libel or slander of a peer was known as scandalum magnatum, and was subject to a different set of rules to libel or slander of a commoner.

Honi soit qui mal y pense - shame on him who thinks ill of it.

The East India Company was formed in 1600 and traded until the 1850's.

The South Sea Company, after the crash of 1720, continued to trade until 1850.

The Assiento was the agreement between the South Sea Company and the King of Spain to allow the company ships to trade slaves between Africa and South America.

The Levant company was formed in 1581 to trade with the Middle East. It was dissolved in 1825.

The Africa Company (also called the Guinea Company) traded between the West Coast of Africa and the Americas. It was formed in the 1660's and ceased trading in 1752.

English puddings: presumably Yorkshire puddings.

Robert Walpole (1676-1745) was effectively Prime Minister from 1721 until he resigned in 1742. 

Walpole had become Paymaster General in 1714. He appropriated some four acres of land from the Royal Hospital at Chelsea and enlarged Wren's stable block to provide himself with a house.

Lord Charles Townshend (1674-1738) was known as 'Turnip' Townshend for his advocacy of the cultivation of the turnip. He married to Walpole's sister, Dorothy. According to Walpole, 'As long as the firm was Townshend and Walpole the utmost harmony prevailed; but it no sooner became Walpole and Townshend, than things went wrong.'

William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire (1673-1729) served as Lord President of the Council from 1725 to 1729.

Sir Spencer Compton (1674-1743) was an MP from 1698. He held various high offices, and succeeded Walpole as First Lord of the Treasury in 1742.

Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Anspach (1683-1737) married George, son of the Elector of Hanover, in 1705. She was generally regarded as the more intelligent of the two.

Temple Bar was a ceremonial arch located between the Strand and Fleet Street. It marked the limit of the city of London authority. It was taken down in 1879 and subsequently re-erected first at Theobald's Park in Hertfordshire and then, in 2003, taken down again and re-erected close by St Paul's Cathedral.

Jean Chevalier or Cavalier (1681-1740) was the son of a peasant and a Camisard (French Protestant guerilla) leader who had first of all fought against the forces of Louis XIV and then, having gained the respect of the opposing generals for his ability, for them. He subsequently offered his services to the Duke of Savoy and, when peace came, crossed over to England, where he joined the Spanish expedition of 1705 under the Earl of Peterborough. He later became lieutenant governor of Jersey and a major general. He was buried in the parish of St Luke's, Chelsea.

Madame du Noyer (c1663-1720) was born Ann-Marguerite Petit at Nimes and brought up in the Protestant religion. She left France for Switzerland and England on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, but converted to Catholicism to marry a French soldier. She subsequently left him, taking with her their two daughters, and settled in Holland, where she wrote her Lettres Historiques et Galantes.

At this time Montague House, site of the present British Museum building in Great Russell Street, backed onto open fields.

Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Anspach (1683-1737) married George, son of the Elector of Hanover, in 1705. She was generally regarded as the more intelligent of the two.

The first recorded Herb Strewer was Bridget Rumny, who served from 1660 to 1671. She received £24 a year and two yards of superfine scarlet cloth for livery. The appointment fell into abeyance in 1836. 

The beadle, as well as being a minor parish official, was also a ceremonial officer of the church.

The Foot Guards : the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards was formed from Charles II's bodyguard in exile. They later became the Grenadier Guards after their notable resistance to the French Grenadiers at Waterloo. The 2nd Regiment of Footguards was formed from General Monck's regiment of the New Model Army. They became known as the Coldstream Guards in 1670. Their motto is nulli secundus : second to none. The 3rd Regiment of Footguards was the Scots Guards, who were formed from the armies raised by Charles II in his attempts to regain the throne of England after the execution of his father.

The Regiment of Horse Guards was originally founded by Oliver Cromwell in 1650 as the Regiment of Cuirassiers. Under Charles II it became the Earl of Oxford's Regiment, at which time their uniform was blue.

Chancery : the distinction between courts of chancery and courts of common law was, supposedly, that while the courts of common law were based on precedent, the court of chancery was based on equity or fairness.

The Chapel Royal historically provided spiritual support to the king, often travelling with him, the Gentlemen and Children of the Chapels Royal singing the services. For example, they sang a dawn mass for Henry V before the battle of Agincourt in 1415, and accompanied Henry VIII to the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.

The two Sheriffs were chosen by the freemen of the livery companies. They had a variety of ceremonial and administrative duties which included acting as returning officers, attending at court and at parliament on behalf of the city and attending executions.

The aldermen were elected from the 26 wards of the City of London for life. They also acted as Justices of the Peace.

The Recorder was a barrister, and was adviser and advocate of the corporation (City of London). He argued for the corporation in Parliament when requested, and prepared a report on every capital convict for the Privy Council (Sovereign's Council). He was present with the Lord Mayor on all important ceremonial occasions.

The Solicitor General was the chief legal adviser to the king.

The King's Proctor represented the Crown in cases of probate and divorce.

The Attorney General advised and represented the Crown in court.

The Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, the Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas and the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench were the heads of the three major common law courts in the legal system of the 18th century. Since 1875 there has been just one Lord Chief Justice.

The Master of the Rolls (Custos Rotulorum) was originally the custodian of the rolls which contained important court judgements. By the 18th century he was also a judge and second only to the Lord Chancellor in judicial importance.

A canon was a member of the chapter of priests which, under the Dean, was responsible for the administration of a church / cathedral.

Though it has its origins in medieval times, the Order of the Bath was re-established by King George I by letters patent under the Great Seal dated 18 May 1725. Bathing was one of the preliminaries to investiture, which also included prayer and fasting, all of which formalities were abolished in 1815.

The Lord Lyon was head of the court which regulated heraldry in Scotland. His office maintained a record of grants of arms and of genealogies.

The modern Order of the Knights of the Thistle was created by James II in 1687. Its members are Scottish and are appointed by the sovereign.

Robert Walpole (1676-1745) was First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1714 to 1717, and again from 1721 until he resigned in 1742.

The Vice Chamberlain, Controller of Accounts and Treasurer of the King's Household were all members of the King's Household: see note.

The King's Councillors: members of the Privy Council.

The Kings-at-Arms were senior members of the College of Heralds, which comprised the Earl Marshal of England as its head, Kings-at-Arms, Heralds-at-Arms and Pursuivants. They maintained records and a library relating to coats of arms in England, and accompanied the sovereign on state occasions. Apart from the Earl Marshal of England, which office was hereditary, they were appointed by the sovereign and considered part of the royal household.

The Order of the Garter was instituted by Edward III (r1327-1377). Its motto was 'Honi soit qui mal pense', 'Shame on him who thinks ill of it', thought to derive from a comment by the king when he picked up a garter belonging to the Countess of Salisbury, which had fallen on the floor while dancing, and put it on his own leg. 

Sarah Churchill, Dowager Duchess of Marlborough (1660-1744), was known for her outspoken opinions and unconventional behaviour.

Charles Fitzroy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, 3rd Earl of Arlington (1683-1757) : according to Jonathan Swift was 'almost a slobberer, without one good quality', and Lord Waldegrave found him 'totally illiterate; yet from long observation and great natural sagacity he became the courtier of his time.' The Lord Chamberlain of the Household was responsible for organising court functions and, until 1968, the licensing of plays in London and Westminster.

William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire (1673-1729) served as Lord President of the Council from 1725 to 1729. See note on the great offices of state.

Thomas Trevor, 1st Baron Trevor (1658-1730) was Lord Privy Seal from 1726 to 1730. See note on the great offices of state..

Peter King, 1st Baron King (1669-1734) was Lord Chancellor from 1725 to 1733. See note on the great offices of state.

Henry Nassau D'Averquerque was created by king William III baron of Alford, Viscount Boston and Earl of Grantham. As Queen's Chamberlain he was responsible for organising the Queen's court functions. He was appointed in 1717.

George Beauclerk, 2nd Duke of St Albans (1696-1751).

John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland (1696-1779). The gold sceptre : see note on the Regalia.

Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk (1683-1732). The ivory sceptre : see note on the Regalia.

The Cinque Ports were Hastings, New Romney, Hythe, Dover and Sandwich, established by Royal Charter in 1155 to maintain ships for the use of the Crown in emergency. In return they obtained freedom from taxes and tolls, the ability to execute criminals and try minor offences, and possession of goods thrown overboard and wreckage. All Freemen of the ports were entitled to style themselves 'Baron of the Cinque Ports'. 

The Gentlemen Pensioners were formed in 1509 by Henry VIII as the Troop of Gentlemen to act as a mounted bodyguard to protect the sovereign in battle or elsewhere. They later became a dismounted bodyguard armed with battleaxes. They were 'pensioners' in the sense that they received board and lodging free of charge, not in the modern sense of 'retired'.

Elizabeth Colyear, daughter of General Walter Colyear, married Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset in 1709. She was a Lady of the Bedchamber from 1714 until 1739.

Mary Herbert born Fitzwilliam (1707-1769) was a Woman of the Bedchamber from 1718. She married the architect Earl of Pembroke, Henry Herbert in 1733.

Henrietta Howard (1688-1767) was a Woman of the Bedchamber from 1714 and mistress to the Prince of Wales, a position she kept from around 1710 until allowed to retire by Queen Caroline in 1734. She received £11,500 in trust from the Prince in 1723 to buy land and build a house, which she applied to building Marble Hill House on the Thames at Twickenham. (The house was designed by Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke, the 'architect earl', the future husband of her companion on this occasion, Mary Herbert). 

John Lindsay, 20th Earl of Crawford (1702-1749). St Edward's staff : see note on the Regalia.

George Clinton, 7th Earl of Lincoln (1684-1728). The sceptre with the dove : see note on the Regalia.

Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke (1656-1732), the 'architect earl' who designed Marble Hill Hall and the original Westminster Bridge.

John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu (1690-1749) married Mary Churchill, the daughter of the Duke of Marlborough. He was a Grandmaster of the Freemasons as well as Grand Master of the Order of the Bath. The Curtana : see note.

Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Kent (1671-1740). The second sword : see note.

William Montagu, 2nd Duke of Manchester (1700-1739) married the daughter of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu. The third sword : see note.

The Lord Mayor of London is elected annually by Common Hall, a body composed of representatives of the City's livery companies. He is chosen from the aldermen.

Peregrine Bertie, 2nd Duke of Ancaster (1686-1742), Lord High Chamberlain: see note on the great offices of state.

Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond (1701-1750), was a great patron of cricket. He captained his own eleven and his players included some of the earliest known professionals. Lord High Constable : see note on the great offices of state.

John Ker, 1st Duke of Roxburgh (1680-1741). The High Constable of Scotland by hereditary right was Mary, Countess of Erroll. She applied for and was granted permission to send a deputy.
Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk (1683-1732). Earl Marshal of England : see note on the great offices of state. Though he could not officiate as Earl Marshal, he was nevertheless in the procession, holding the Queen's ivory sceptre.

Talbot Yelverton, 1st Earl of Sussex (1690-1731).

Theophilius Hastings, 9th Earl of Huntingdon (1696-1746). The sword of state : see note.

Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset (1688-1765) acted twice as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. St Edward's crown: see note.

Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset (1662-1748), Macaulay describes as 'a man in whom the pride of birth and rank amounted almost to a disease.' The sceptre : see note.

John Campbell, the 2nd Duke of Argyle (1678-1743), was a soldier, the chief of clan Campbell, who fought under the Duke of Marlborough at Oudenarde and Malplaquet. He also led the government forces at Sheriffmuir during the Jacobite rising of 1715. 

The orb: see note.

Patena: a plate or shallow dish (also called paten and patina).

The Gentlemen Pensioners were formed in 1509 by Henry VIII as the Troop of Gentlemen to act as a mounted bodyguard to protect the sovereign in battle or elsewhere. They later became a dismounted bodyguard armed with battleaxes. Their captain was William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington (1698-1755), who became the 3rd Duke of Devonshire in 1729.

The Yeomen of the Guard form a bodyguard of the sovereign. They are appointed by the Lord Chamberlain's recommendation, must be more than 42 years old and less than 55 on appointment, and must be sergeants or above, but not commissioned officers. Their captain was John Sidney, 6th Earl of Leicester (1680-1737).

William Capell, 3rd Earl of Essex (1697-1743). 

George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) settled permanently in London in 1712. He was commissioned to write four anthems for the coronation, one of which, Zadok the Priest, has been played at every coronation since.

Candles: 1800 candles were lit in under 3 minutes, a feat accomplished by John James Heidegger (1659-1749), a Swiss nobleman who had arrived in England in 1708 and who had become involved in the promotion of music, masquerades and opera.

Chief Butler: see note.

The Master of the Horse: all matters of the sovereign's horses, hounds, stud, mews, kennels, coaches and coach houses were the responsibility of the Master of the Horse, who was normally a peer and a member of the Privy Council. Various officials were responsible to him, including the Gentleman of the Horse, the Clerk Marshal, the Crown Equerry and other Equerries.

Lord of Grand-Wymondley : see note.

Lord of Scrivelsby: see note.

Lord of Addington: see note.

Lord of Ascleven : see note.

Lord of Heyden: see note.

Lord of Worksop: see note.

Italian Opera: 'As for the reigning amusement of the town, it is entirely music - real fiddles, bass-viols and haut-boys, not poetical harps, lyres and reeds. There's nobody allowed to say, I sing, but an eunuch, or an Italian woman. Everybody is grown now as great a judge of Music as they were, in your time, of Poetry; and folks, that could not distinguish one tune from another, now daily dispute about the different styles of Handel, Bononcini, and Attilio....' John Gay, writing to Jonathan Swift in 1723. In 1719 John James Heidegger and a group of noblemen, including the Duke of Newcastle, Lord Bingley and the Earl of Burlington, had formed the Royal Academy of Music, which was dedicated to bringing the best Italian style opera to London, and to whom the King promised £1000 a year for seven years. They had George Frideric Handel, whose first Italian style opera in London was staged in 1711, as principal composer, and he was joined later by Bononcini and Ariosti. They also employed what were regarded as the best Italian sopranos and castratos, sending Handel to Dresden in 1719 to look for singers.

Francesca Cuzzoni (1698-1770) made her debut in as Teofane in Handel's Ottone in 1723. She remained in England until the end of the 1728 season.

Faustina Bordoni (1700-1781) made her debut in London at the King's Theatre in 1726. She also left England at the end of the 1728 season.

The rivalry between Cuzzoni and Faustina culminated in a brawl betwen the sopranos onstage during a performance of Bononcini's Astianatte at the end of the 1727 season.

Francesco Bernado Senesino (c1690-c1750) arrived in England in 1720 and remained until 1726, when his health forced him to return to Italy. He visited England a second time from 1730 to 1734.

The Drury Lane Theatre was rebuilt after the Great Fire to designs by Wren, but burnt down in 1672. It was rebuilt again on a more magnificent scale, again to designs by Wren, which building stood until demolished in 1791.

The Lincoln's Inn Field's Theatre opened in 1662 under William Davenant. It was rebuilt by Christopher Rich and openedby John Rich (his son) in 1714. It was here that the Beggar's Opera ran for 62 nights in 1727/8 'making Gay Rich and Rich Gay'.

The Beggar's Opera by John Gay (1685-1732) was a ballad opera, which also functioned as a political satire, making parrallels between the morals of the criminal underworld and the political elite.

Charles Paulet, 3rd Duke of Bolton (1685-1754) is shown on Hogarth's print of the Beggars' Opera watching his future bride, Lavinia Fenton, in the role of Polly Peachum.

The Ambitious Stepmother (1700) by Nicholas Rowe is cited by David Hume in his treatise On Tragedy as an example of an action which is 'too bloody and atrocious', though his work was highly praised by Samuel Johnson. He was made poet laureate in 1715 and died in 1718.

John Rich (d1761) was a theatre manager, having inherited a three-quarter share in the Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre from his father. He tried acting, unsuccessfully, but in 1717 had a great success as 'Lun', a silent Harlequin, in Harlequin Executed. The actor David Garrick later eulogised his performances in verse : When Lun appeared, with matchless art and whim, /He gave the power of speech to every limb: /Tho' masked and mute, conveyed his quick intent, /And told in frolic gesture what he meant. 

Harlequin, Columbine, Scaramouche, Pierrot: characters from the Commedia dell'Arte, a form of improvisational theatre beginning in Italy in the 16th century, but with roots in antiquity.

The Whitehall Cockpit was opposite the Banqueting Hall, close by Downing Street.

Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle (1693-1768), married Lady Harriet Godolphin, the daughter of the Duke of Marlborough, in 1717, when he also became a Privy Councillor. In 1719 he was one of the Lord Chief Justices with whom the King left power when he visited Hanover, and in 1724 he was appointed Secretary of State for the Southern Department on the advice of Robert Walpole. George I had insisted on his being appointed godfather to the Prince of Wales' (later George II) son, William, contrary to the Prince's wishes. At the christening, the Prince of Wales had called the Duke of Newcastle a 'rogue' and threatened him with revenge, at which the King had put his son under arrest and banished him from St James' Palace. The Duke nevertheless survived the change of sovereign.

James I was prominent in establishing horse racing at Newmarket. Banned during the Commonwealth, Charles II was active in re-establishing the sport there, and is credited with introducing the furlong poles and riding silks, as well as encouraging the general population to attend the races and providing trophies and purses for the winners. Queen Anne was instrumental in founding Royal Ascot. In 1740 Parliament thought it necessary to introduce an act 'to restrain and to prevent the excessive increase in horse racing'.

Football had been played in England from the 13th century and, during the course of the centuries, various monarchs tried unsuccessfully to ban the game. An agreed set of rules was not established until the mid nineteenth century, however.

Cricket was played from about the middle of the 16th century, though there are uncertain references to the game earlier than this. County teams began to be formed at the beginning of the 18th century, the first county match occurring in 1709.

Christmas Pudding began life as Christmas Porridge, or Frumenty, a dish made of wheat or corn boiled in milk. In time other ingredients were added such as dried plums or prunes, eggs and meat to make it more interesting. 

Bridewell (St Bride's Well) had been both a Saxon and Norman palace, and was last used as a palace by Henry VIII, who spent considerable amounts of money restoring and extending it. It was handed over to the City in 1553 and became first a place for housing homeless children and disorderly women and subsequently a prison, hospital and workhouse. It was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 and rebuilt shortly thereafter in a plan comprising two large courtyards. It is described by Hatton in 1708 as 'a house of correction for idle, vagrant, loose and disorderly persons and night walkers, who are there set to hard labour, but receive clothes and diet.' Apprentices were retrained there by 20 'art masters' who taught tailoring, weaving, flax dressing and other trades. It became a model 
for other institutions of a similar type.

Fleet Ditch was still an open sewer at this date, running into the Thames near Blackfriar's Stairs.

Hertford Castle was in a ruinous state by the reign of James I, but had been previously a main residence of kings, and Elizabeth I spent some of her childhood there under the care of guardians. She was imprisoned by Mary I, her half sister, in the Tower of London for two months in 1554, and subsequently moved to first Woodstock in Oxfordshire in the custody of Sir Henry Bedingfield, and then Hatfield House, where she heard of the death of her sister and consequent accession to the throne in 1558.

The bed was made by Jonas Fosbrooke, a Hertfordshire carpenter, and was originally at the White Hart Inn, in Ware. It is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Moor Park: the house was originally built in 1678-79 for James, Duke of Monmouth, a natural son of Charles II who led the Monmouth Rebellion against his uncle, James II, and was executed in 1685.

Hatfield House belonged to the Crown after Henry VIII expropriated it. He used it to house his children. But James I did not like it and swapped it with Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, for Theobalds. Cecil transformed it between 1607 and 1611 and improved the gardens. The descendants of Robert Cecil are still in residence.

Cassiobury Park came to the Crown on the dissolution of the Monasteries. It was sold to Richard Morrison who, with his son Charles, built a mansion, which was rebuilt under the direction of Hugh May for Arthur Capel, 1st Earl of Essex, after the Restoration.

General Joseph Sabine was born in 1661 in Ireland. He served under Marlborough, leading the attack at Oudenarde where, according to Narcissus Luttrell, 'Sabine's brigade of Welsh fusiliers fought and defeated seven French battalions and forced them to beg for quarter and lay down their arms.' He bought Tewin House in 1715 and completely rebuilt it.

Moor Park: the house was originally built in 1678-79 for James, Duke of Monmouth, a natural son of Charles II who led the Monmouth Rebellion against his uncle, James II, and was executed in 1685.

Hatfield House belonged to the Crown after Henry VIII expropriated it. He used it to house his children. But James I did not like it and swapped it with Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, for Theobalds. Cecil transformed it between 1607 and 1611 and improved the gardens. The descendants of Robert Cecil are still in residence.

Cassiobury Park came to the Crown on the dissolution of the Monasteries. It was sold to Richard Morrison who, with his son Charles, built a mansion, which was rebuilt under the direction of Hugh May for Arthur Capel, 1st Earl of Essex, after the Restoration.

General Joseph Sabine was born in 1661 in Ireland. He served under Marlborough, leading the attack at Oudenarde where, according to Narcissus Luttrell, 'Sabine's brigade of Welsh fusiliers fought and defeated seven French battalions and forced them to beg for quarter and lay down their arms.' He bought Tewin House in 1715 and completely rebuilt it.

Negroes: both white and negro albinos continued to be popular curiosities through the 18th and 19th centuries. The condition arises from a deficiency of the skin, hair and eye pigment, melanin. Some albinos have reddish or violet eyes, though most have blue.

The missal comprises all that is needed for the celebration of the Mass in one volume. The 'Missale Romanum' produced in 1570, after the Council of Trent, attempted to impose one uniform Mass on the whole of Europe, though practices of more than 200 years establishment were allowed to continue. The Book of Common Prayer, first introduced in 1549, provides a similar manual.

French refugees: the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 outlawed the practice of Protestantism in France and some hundreds of thousands of Protestants left the country. Between 50,000 and 80,000 came to England, about half of whom settled around London.

Cant: Johnson's dictionary gives five definitions of the word, including 'a form of speaking peculiar to some certain class or body of men (Dryden)', 'a whining pretension to goodness (Dryden)' and 'a barbarous jargon (Swift)'.

George Fox (1624-1691) was bound by his father, a weaver, to a shoemaker and grazier and spent most of his youth tending sheep. He took to a wandering life in 1643, seeking first solitude, then frequenting the company of religious persons. He subsequently became a public preacher, inveighing against drunkenness and the vice and injustice of the times, attacking the clergy and established modes of worship, and claimed that the light of Christ, implanted in the human heart, was the only means of salvation. He was frequently imprisoned for his beliefs, and travelled in England, Scotland and Ireland, then Germany, Holland, the West Indies and America.

The Synagogue at Duke's Place, Hounsditch, associated with Germand and Dutch Jews, was first built in 1722 to designs by John Spitler at the expense of Moses Hart, though worship had been conducted in a house on the same site for some time previous. The second synagogue was that belonging to the Spanish and Potuguese Jews in Bevis Marks.

The Knights of the Post: defined by Nash in Pierce Pennilesse as 'a fellow that will sweare you anything for twelve pence'. They were so called because they were to be found at the posts set up by sheriffs, to which they attached proclamations. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E Cobham Brewer (1894).

Spunging Houses were notoriously subject to bribery and corruption.

The Fleet Prison was in existence at the time of Richard I (r1189-1199). During the 18th century, it usually contained about 300 prisoners and their families.

The Fleet Registers contain details of about 250,000 marriages carried out between 1686 and 1754, when the trade was suppressed by the Marriage Act.

The Court of the Marshalsea was instituted to try cases involving the king's servants, so that they would not be drawn into other courts and he be deprived of their service. It was held before the Steward and Marshal of the King's House. The same officials presided over the Palace Court, which had authority to try any case where the trespass occurred within twelve miles of the sovereign, and it is probably this court which is here intended.

The terms 'Whig' and 'Tory' were first used in connection with the dispute about excluding James, Duke of York, brother to Charles II, from the succession. Whig was a Gaelic term, generally applied to horse-thieves and Presbyterians, connoting therefore non-conformity and rebellion. It was applied to those who sought to keep out James. Tory was an Irish term applied to papist outlaws, and was applied to those who supported James' hereditary claims despite the fact of his Catholicism. 

The Tulip Tree: 'It is a native of North America, where it is vulgarly called the poplar. The first which produced blossoms in this country, is said to have been at the Earl of Peterborough's, at Parson's Green, near Fulham. In 1688 this tree was cultivated by Bishop Compton at Fulham, who introduced a great number of new plants from North America.' The Mirror of Literature, Amusement and Instruction. July 21, 1832. The article goes on to mention the tulip tree at Waltham Abbey, 'said to be the largest in England.'

George Henry Hay, Earl of Kinnoull (1689-1758).

General Joseph Sabine was born in 1661 in Ireland. He served under Marlborough, leading the attack at Oudenarde where, according to Narcissus Luttrell, 'Sabine's brigade of Welsh fusiliers fought and defeated seven French battalions and forced them to beg for quarter and lay down their arms.' 

The Nore is a sandbank on the Thames estuary. Its anchorage was much used by the British fleet during the wars of the 17th and 18th centuries.

Port Mahon is the chief town and harbour of Minorca in the Meditarranean Sea. It was under the control of the British for considerable periods during the 18th century.

The Levant Company was formed in 1581 to conduct trade with the Middle East. It continued in existence until 1825.

Aleppo is in present North East Syria near the border with Turkey. According to a proverb 'an Aleppine can sell even a dried donkey skin'. It was a mecca of trade from ancient times and became the third city of the Ottoman empire, after Istanbul and Cairo. John Barker, English consul in Aleppo in the early 19th century, wrote of a wedding celebration in the city: '...the courtyards are illuminated at night with different coloured lamps, and nightingales in cages are hired and placed among the shrubs and trees, which sing at intervals when the music ceases. The dazzling diamonds of the ladies, and the various colours of their dresses, the lights, the singing of the birds, and the trickling of the water falling on the marble basins, made one fancy it to be Fairyland.'

Cape Finisterre: the tip of north west Spain.

River Tagus: on which Lisbon stands.

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